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*Public Health

Use the websites below to find out even more about Public Health. Search for data, find professional organizations, and more.
On this page you'll find the resources we recommend for writing and citing assistance after you've found the articles, books and other sources you need.

Using Your Sources: Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing

Summarize, paraphrase, and quote to include others' ideas in your own writing.

  • Summarize: Summarization condenses the information to a few general statements. Summarize when you find the same information in many sources. Summarize when one source provides a lot of context for your project.
  • Paraphrase: Put the information in your own words. Paraphrase when one idea is important but the exact wording does not matter. You will often find paraphrasing useful if multiple sources have similar information.
  • Quote: Use a small portion of another person's words, exactly as that person wrote or said them. Put quotation marks around the words or phrases you borrowed. Quote when information is unique to one source and is not easy to reword. Quote when one source uses especially compelling language.

Parts of a Paper

Most research papers follow a similar format (IMRAD).


The introduction provides background information on the topic and summarizes previous research on the topic (the literature review). It points out gaps in the research or conflicting findings. It helps the user understand why the author did their own research and what they wanted to learn from their study. Many times, the introduction will also include the author's hypothesis and the reasons they expected that outcome.


The methods section describes the study's scope and explains what the authors did. It should tell you what you would need to know if you wanted to do the same study. It will tell you how many people or items the author studied and how they collected the samples. You will see descriptions of important information about the participants or samples. You will see names of tests, chemicals, and software the authors used in their study.


The results section tells you what the authors found. You will often see charts or graphs in this section. The results section has facts. Sometimes the results section is combined with the discussion section.



The discussion section analyzes the results. It will tell you how the author's results compare to other studies. It will tell you why the author's results are important. If the author's results did not match their hypothesis, it will explore why the results were different than they had expected. The discussion section also usually tells you limitations of the study and topics for further research.

Choosing a Citation Manager

Citation managers are amazing tools that can do so much for your research process, including:

Organize and save citations/articles.

Create in-text citations.

Share citations/articles with colleagues.

Generate Reference Lists in a wide range of styles.

Here is the citation manager we recommend:

APA Citation Style Guide

The Cite Button

Most of the Library's eResources can generate a citation for you. Look for the Cite Button or other Citation Tools in these locations:

  • In the menu to the right of an article/abstract.
  • At the top of the results list.
  • Under each citation in the results list.
  • At the bottom of an article/abstract page.

These aren't quite as robust as a full citation manager, but they're useful tools for creating citations. Remember though, no citation generator is 100% accurate. Please double-check your citations against the handbook to be sure they're right!

Looking to Publish?

The following tools can help you decide where to publish.

Books for More Writing Help

Cover art for Health Professionals Style Manual (2nd Edition)

Health Professionals Style Manual (2nd Ed.)

ProQuest Ebook Central
Unlimited users

How to Write, Publish, and Present in the Health Sciences

Rittenhouse R2Library Online Collection
1 simultaneous user

Medical Writing: A Prescription for Clarity (4th Ed.)

Rittenhouse R2Library Online Collection
1 simultaneous user

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