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INF 220: Intermediate Research Skills

This guide expands on the topics you've explored in INF: 220

Understand the type of source being referenced

The key to reading a cited reference is to understand the type of publication being referenced. So, is it an article published in a scholarly journal? A book? A chapter in a book? A blog post? A video? 

  • Citing is how researchers and scholars around the world and across time share information with each other.
  • Each subject uses the citation style that emphasizes aspects of the research that the subject highly value (eg the sciences indicate they value the date of research by using APA).
  • The title (article, journal, book chapter, book, etc) tell you how dense the source is - and that can help you decide if you also need a broader source for contextual information.

Based on Dan Martin's work

On this page you'll see examples in both APA and AMA citation styles. There are lots of other styles out there and if you see something here that doesn't look right remember to consult your style handbook! 

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/using_research/citation_style_chart.html 

Parts of Citations

Each style will arrange the parts in a different order, but each style is working towards the same goal: telling you about the source. Look for parts like, but not limited to:

  • author names
  • item-level title
  • broader title information
  • date
  • publisher information
  • URL
  • item identifiers

Example Citations

 

  Academic Article
APA Ruben, M. A., Shipherd, J. C., Topor, D., AhnAllen, C. G., Sloan, C. A., Walton, H. M., … Trezza, G. R. (2017). Advancing LBGT health care policies and clinical care within a large academic health care system: a case study. Journal of homosexuality, 64(10), 1411–1431. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2017.1321386
AMA Ruben MA, Shipherd JC, Topor D, et al. Advancing LBGT health care policies and clinical care within a large academic health care system: a case study. J Homosex. 2017;64(10):1411-1431. doi:10.1080/00918369.2017.1321386.
  Book, edition other than first
APA Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (Fifth edition). Los Angeles: SAGE.
AMA Creswell JW, Creswell JD. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 5th ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE; 2018.
  Website Article
APA Resnick, B. (2016, March 14). What psychology’s crisis means for the future of science. Retrieved September 20, 2018, from https://www.vox.com/2016/3/14/11219446/psychology-replication-crisis
AMA Resnick, B. What psychology's crisis means for the future of science. Vox.com. https://www.vox.com/2016/3/14/11219446/psychology-replication-crisis. Published March 14, 2016. Accessed September 20, 2018.
  CDC Report
APA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). National diabetes statistics report, 2017. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf 
AMA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National diabetes statistics report, 2017. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf. Accessed September 20, 2018. 
  Dissertation
APA Garza, J. R. (2015). Stressful social comparisons and daily stressors: examining their role as psychosocial explanations in socioeconomic health disparities. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/58z827t1#main
AMA Garza, JR. Stressful social comparisons and daily stressors: examining their role as psychosocial explanations in socioeconomic health disparities [dissertation]. Los Angeles: University of California; 2015.

 

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